Kawung, Gringsing, Ceplokan, Parang, and Prabha (nitik) were the early batiks in Central Java and East Java, emerged during the classical period of the 12-15th Century. During the pre-Islamic era (the transitional period from Hinduism to Islam), before the ulema introduced sarong batik for prayers, the classical batik in Yogyakarta and Surakarta palaces, as well as in the rural areas, was called Mataraman batik.
As rural batik originated from the palaces in Yogyakarta and Surakarta, batiks like kawung, parang, gringsing, sidomukti, nitik, semen, and other Mataraman batiks were also classified as Yogyakarta batik.
Since classical batiks were developed in the northern coast of Java, the patterns were enriched by 'lung-lungan' (plant tendrills) ornaments. The tendrils ornaments were complemented with flowers and combination of colors. Plants motifs did not necessary contain symbolical philosophy. That batik could be deliberately presented as wearable goods which had economical value and flourished in Java northern coastal towns. The towns of batik producers stretched along Java and Madura among others were Jakarta, Indramayu, Cirebon, Pekalongan, Batang, Pemalang, Semarang, Lasem, Jepara, Tuban, Pamekasan, and Tanjung Bumi. Thus their batiks are categorized as batik 'pesisiran' or the coastal batik.